Junkers Ju 188
A successor to the
Junkers Ju 88 was at an advanced stage of design at the outbreak of
World War 11, but by late 1942 it had become obvious that the new
bomber, the Ju 288, would be late entering service and a stop-gap
design was required to bring the series up to date. Junkers had been
working as a private venture on an improved Ju 88, and the first
interim result of this was the prototype Ju 88B which featured a
completely new forward fuselage; 10 pre-production aircraft were built,
and these paved the way to the Junkers Ju 188 which featured the new
nose; pointed-tip wings with an increase of 6 ft 63/4 in (2.00 m) in
span; anew tail unit with the tall, square fin and rudder as used on
the Ju 88G; and a streamlined dorsal turret.
The first prototype Ju
188 flew in the spring of 1942 with BMW 801MA radial engines, and was
followed by the second prototype in January 1943. The performance
warranted production orders, but it was stipulated that the design must
be such that either BMW 801 or Jumo 213 engines could be fitted without
modifications to the airframe, so that if one type of engine became
unavailable it would not affect production. Deliveries of Ju I88E-1
aircraft with 1,600 hp (1193 kW) BMW 801ML engines began in February
1943, and 283 had entered service by the end of the year. ATG, Leipzig
and Siebel/Halle opened further lines at the beginning of 1944.
Designation of the first model with the Jumo 213A-1 was Ju 188A-2, and
with water-methanol injection, its engines were boosted from 1,776 hp
(1324 kW) to 2,240 hp (1670 kW) for take-off. The Ju 188A-3 was a minor
variant, with nose radar and the ability to carry two torpedoes beneath
A Ju 188D-2 with 1.(F)/124 based at Kirkenes in Norway near the Finnish
border in 1944
versions followed, the Ju 188D-1 and Ju 188D-2, with crew reduced from
four to three, the forward-firing 20 mm cannon deleted and with extra
fuel tanks fitted to give a range of 2,110 miles (3395 km). The type of
cameras carried depended on mission, and the Ju 188D-2 was equipped
with nose radar, being intended mainly for over-sea operations. The Ju
18SE variants were for the most part similar to the Ju 188Ds except
that they had BMW 801 engines; the Ju 188E-l's 1,600 hp (1193 kW)
engines soon gave way to uprated 1,700 hp (1268 kW) BMW 8OlDs, while
the Ju 18SE-2 was the BMW-powered equivalent of the Ju 188A-3
torpedo-bomber. Similar reconnaissance equivalents were the Ju 188F-1
and Ju 188F-2 (Ju 188D-1 and Ju I88D-2). The Ju 188G and Ju 18SH models
with manned rear turrets did not reach flight-test stage, but three Ju
188R night-fighters were built in 1944. The variant did not go into
production, however, since it was unable to offer much improvement over
the Ju 88G. High-altitude models proposed originally as the Ju 188J
(fighter), Ju 188K (bomber) and Ju 188L (reconnaissance) went ahead,
but the types were later redesignated Ju 388J, Ju 388K and Ju 388L.
Simpler versions of these (for high-altitude intruder and
reconnaissance work, with no defensive armament) became the Ju 188S and
Ju 188T. With Jumo 213E-1 engines with water-methanol injection giving
2,168 hp (1617 Kw) at take-off and 1,690 hp (1260 kW) at 31,400 ft
(9570 m), the Ju I88T could reach 435 mph (700 km/h) at 37,730 ft
(11500 m). Operating at this altitude, the Ju 188S could carry only
1,764 lb (800 kg) of bombs.
Total production of all
Ju 188 variants reached 1,076, of which more than half were
reconnaissance variants. Probably the most unusual operator was
France's Aeronavale, which ordered 12 Ju 188Es just after the war.
These were built at Toulouse by SNCASE, from German components, and
were used for test purposes.
The design of a Junkers
Ju 188 successor to the Ju 88 was well advanced at the outbreak of
World War II, but by 1942 it was clear that this would be late in
entering service and a stop-gap design was needed urgently to update
the Ju 88. Junkers had flown during 1940 the prototype of the Ju 88B,
which incorporated a new enlarged forward fuselage and increased-span
wings. Although this version did not enter production, only 10
pre-production Ju 88B-0 aircraft being built, it was the later Ju 88E-0
development of this version, which was used as the basis for the new
bomber/reconnaissance aircraft designated Ju 188.
The Ju 188V-1 and Ju
188V-2 prototypes were flown in early 1942 and 1943 respectively, and
following successful testing the type was ordered into production. A
stipulation of the contract was that the airframe must be suitable,
without modification, for the installation of either BMW 801 or Junkers
Jumo 213 engines to ensure continuity of production.
Junkers-engined version was the Ju 188A-2, with two Jumo 213A-1 engines
that each developed 1670 kW (2,240 hp) for take-off with water/methanol
injection. Total production of all Ju 188 variants exceeded 1,000
aircraft, more than half of them being for use in a reconnaissance
role. Variants included the Ju 188A-2 bomber and Ju 188A-3
Ju 188D-1 and Ju 188D-2
The initial production
version was the Ju 188E-1, with 1193 kW (1,600 hp) BMW 8OlML engines,
which entered service in February 1943. 283 of this version had been
delivered by the end of the year. The Ju 188E-1 was a bomber and Ju
188E-2 was a torpedo-bomber.
The Ju 188F-2 was
developed as a reconnaissance aircraft.
The Ju 188S-1 was a
high-altitude intruder while the Ju 188T-1 was a high altitude
reconnaissance aircraft. Both lacked any defensive armament.
Junkers Ju 288
The failure of the
Junkers Ju 288 series and the programmes cancellation in mid-1943
spawned yet another variant of the ubiquitous Ju 88 airframe.
The Ju 288 had been
Junkers' response to a specification issued in July 1939 for a
pressurised bomber of advanced design with a maximum speed in excess of
400 mph (645 km/h) and an ability to carry 1,102 lbs (500 kg) of bombs
over 3,355 miles (5400 km). Apart from a forward fuselage similar to
that of the Ju 188, the new aircraft bore no resemblance to its
predecessors, and had twin fins and rudders.
The whole story of the
Ju 288 was one of technical problems on the one hand and continual
requests for redesign on the other. As an example, the original wing
span was to have been 51 ft 6 in (15.70 m), yet the final variant had
been stretched to 74 ft 4 in (22.65 m) 1 A total of 22 prototypes of
various versions was flown, of which 17 crashed during flight test, but
the reasons for final cancellation of the programme were shortages of
raw materials and a reluctance to affect other production programmes by
initiating a new one at a critical time in the war.
Junkers Ju 388
unfortunate background, it was extremely urgent to fill the gap left by
the abandoned Ju 288. Fortunately, Junkers had carried on development
of high-altitude models of the Ju 188 and three of these, originally
designated Ju 188J, Ju 188K and Ju 188L, became the Ju 388J
(all-weather fighter), Ju 388K (bomber) and Ju 388L
(photo-reconnaissance) models. Although all were intended originally to
have Jumo 213E engines, supplies of these were unreliable since they
were in great demand, and the three models thus used the
turbo-supercharged BMW 801TJ radial.
reconnaissance was the biggest priority, the first prototype of the new
series was a Ju 388L, converted from a Ju 188T, while the following
pre-production batch was converted from Ju 88S airframes, the first of
them being handed over to the Luftwaffe in August 1944. Construction of
Ju 388Ls totalled 47 by the time production was halted in December 1944
when photo-reconnaissance aircraft were, it was decided, no longer a
priority. The Ju 388J fighter was even less fortunate, only three
prototypes being completed, and 10 pre-production Ju 388K-0 bombers
plus five Ju 388K-1 production models had been completed before the axe
fell on this, the final development of the Ju 88.
Type: Five Seat
Flugzeug und Motorenworke AG
Junkers Flugzeug und Motorenworke AG with subcontract manufacture of
parts by various French companies
188A) Two 1,776 hp (1325 kW) Junkers Jumo 213A 12-cylinder inverted Vee
engines. (Ju 188D) Same as Ju 188A. (Ju 188E) Two 1,700 hp (1268 kW)
BMW 801D-2 14-cylinder two row radial engines.
188A) Maximum speed 325 mph (420 km/h) at 20,500 ft (6250 m); service
ceiling 33,000 ft (10060 m). (Ju 188D) Maximum speed 350 mph (560 km/h)
at 27,000 ft (8235 m); service ceiling 36,090 ft (11000 m). (Ju 188E)
Maximum speed 315 mph (494 km/h) at 19,685 ft (6000 m); service ceiling
31,170 ft (9500 m); cruising speed 233 mph (375 km/h) at 16,405 ft
Range: (Ju 188A
and E) 1550 miles (2480 km) with a 3,300 lbs (1500 kg) bombload or
1,209 miles (1945 km) with a 6,614 lbs (3000 kg) bombload (maximum
188E) Empty equipped 21,737 lbs (9860 kg) with a maximum take-off
weight of 31,989 lbs (14510 kg). (Ju 188A and D) Maximum take-off
weight of 33,730 lbs (15300 kg).
72 ft 2 in (22.00 m); length 49 ft 1/2 in (14.95 m); height 14 ft 7 in
(4.44 m); wing area 602.80 sq ft (56.0 sq m).
forward firing 20 mm MG 151 cannon in the nose, a single 13 mm (0.51
in) MG 131 machine gun each in the dorsal turret and the rear of the
cockpit canopy, and one 7.92 mm (0.31 in) MG 81 machine gun in lower
front fuselage firing aft, plus a maximum internal bombload of 6,614
lbs (3000 kg) or two 2,200 lbs (1000 kg) LT 1B or LT F5b torpedoes
under the inner wing. On some aircraft, the rear cockpit canopy MG 131
machine gun could be replaced with twin 7.92 mm MG 81 machine guns.
Variants: Ju 188, Ju 188V-1/V-2, Ju 188A-2/A-3, Ju 188D-1/D-2, Ju
188E-1/E-2, Ju 188F-2, Ju 188S-1, Ju 188T-1.
D-2) FuG 200 Hohentwiel radar used for anti-shipping torpedo bombing or
flight (Ju 88B-0) early 1940, (Ju 88V-27) September 1941, (Ju 188V-1)
December 1941, (Ju 188E-1) March 1942, (Ju 388L) May 1944.
Germany (Luftwaffe), France (post war).