The two-spar wing was
of spruce and plywood with a plywood skin, and inboard of the inset
ailerons the whole trailing edge of the wing was occupied by flaps
which also extended beneath the fuselage. The fuselage was largely of
wood and had plywood skinning except for the nose section and upper
decking which had stressed sheet metal covering. The cantilever tail
unit was also a wooden structure, its fixed surfaces plywood-covered
and control surfaces fabric-covered. Streamlined nacelles for the 220
hp (164 kW) Bengali 6-cylinder engines extended below and to the rear
of the wings; and the main landing gear units, each incorporating an
oleo-sprung fork, retracted rearwards to lie wholly enclosed within the
engine nacelles. The prototype had fairings attached to the front of
each main leg to cover the wheel wells when the landing gear was
retracted, but the next two C.440s had two wheel well doors attached to
the underside of each nacelle, a feature of all future Goélands. A
non-retracting steerable tailwheel was fitted.
In its basic passenger
configuration the Goéland had comfortable cabin accommodation for six
passengers. The pilot and co-pilot, who doubled as wireless operator,
were seated side-by-side and had dual controls. Baggage holds were
located fore and aft and a toilet was situated at the rear of the
The Goéland remained in
production in several versions up to World War II, the principal model
being the C.445, also adopted by the Armée de l'Air as the C.445M and
used for a variety of tasks, including military communications duties
and crew training. Some C.445Ms were used by the Aéronavale. Civil
users of the Goéland included Air France. Air Bleu and Régie Air
Afrique. Air Bleu used one C.444 and several C.445s on night mail
routes from Paris to the Spanish border, and Régie Air Afrique operated
the type on its North African routes. Other Goélands flew passenger
services in French West Africa and Madagascar. The type was sold abroad
to Aeroput of Yugoslavia and to Bulgaria and Spain. Two C.445Ms were
supplied to the Belgian Aéronautique Militaire in 1940.
during World War II, and after the German occupation of France 44
C.445s and 10 C.445Ms were requisitioned, some flying on Lufthansa
routes and others being operated by the Luftwaffe. Considerable numbers
of the C.445M and C.449 were built for the Germans at Renault's
Billancourt and Caudron's Issy-les-Moulineaux factories. Production at
Billancourt, however, was reduced to a trickle after a heavy RAF raid
in 1943. The Germans used the Goéland as a pilot, radio and
navigational trainer, for communications and a small number had glazed
noses for bomb-aimer training. In addition to the C.447 specialised
ambulance version, a few other Goelands were used for casualty
Other Goélands served
the French Vichy regime, while a number were scattered throughout
France's overseas empire, most of them in North Africa. Several C.445s
operated in the UK after June 1940 with Free French forces.
In 1945 the Caudron
plant was taken over by the French government as the Ateliers
Aéronautiques d'Issy-les-Moulineaux. Here production of the C.445M and
C.449 continued under the designation AA.1. Post-war Goélands continued
in service with Air France. At the beginning of 1946 the company had 23
C.445s and 19 C.449s at its disposal, these flew domestic night mail
services for a time, but were employed for many years as crew trainers.
Other civil operators included SABENA and two French companies, Aigle
Azur and CAT (Compagnie Air Transport). Goélands continued to fly for a
number of years on a wide range of duties with the Armée de l'Air.
Production of all
versions of the Goéland totalled 1,702. A number of early aircraft were
converted subsequently to later versions. The production listing below
totals 1,446 as it has not been possible to verify the sub-type
designations of the remaining 256 Goélands.
Caudron C.440 - The
original prototypes and the first two production aircraft.
Caudron C.441 - Powered
by two 220 hp (164 kW) Renault 6Q-00 Bengali 6-cylinder inline piston
engines engines. A minor wing change included a 3° dihedral on the
outer wing sections (4 built).
Caudron C.444 - The
first version to introduce counter-rotating engines and propellers
(Renault 6Q-00 and 6Q-01) to overcome torque effects (17 built).
Caudron C.445 - Similar
to the C.444, but wing dihedral was increased to 4° (114 C.445s, 2
C.445/1s and 3 C.445/2s were ordered but only 40 were built) .
Caudron C.445M - This
was the militarised version of the C.445 with the internal layout
varying by the role (404 built).
Caudron C.445R - A long
distance variant with additional fuel tanks in the passenger cabin (1
Caudron C.445/3 - One
of the principal post-war versions, with counter-rotating Renault 6Q-10
and 6Q-11 engines (510 completed).
Caudron C.446 - A
single aircraft with minor improvements and named the Caudron Super
Caudron C.447 - An Air
Ambulance with accommodation for four stretchers and additional side
windows (31 built).
Caudron C.448 - Powered
by supercharged 240 hp (179 kW) Renault 6Q-02 and 6Q-03 engines.
Maximum take-off weight increased to 8,157 lbs (3700 kg) (7 built).
Caudron C.449 - The
final production model (349 built, many post-war comprising of 24 basic
C.449s, 298 C.449/1s, C.449/2s and C.449/3s and 27 C.449/4s and
C.449/5s, the C.449/4 being a specialised photographic aircraft).
C.445M Goéland "Seagull")
Type: Two Seat
Light Transport, Crew Trainer & Communications
Pilot, Co-Pilot (who doubled as a Wireless Operator) and up to six
Marcel Riffard of the Société Anonyme des Avions Caudron
Société Anonyme des Avions Caudron (which remained an independent
manufacturer until 1945 when nationalised by the french government as
Ateliers Aéronautiques d'Issy-les-Moulineaux). Renault's Billancourt
Factory also produced the type for the Luftwaffe during the German
220 hp (164 kW) Renault 6Q-00/01 or 08/09 Bengali 6-cylinder inline
Maximum speed 186 mph (300 km/h) at sea level; economical cruising
speed 162 mph (261 km/h); service ceiling 22,965 ft (7000 m).
Range: 621 miles
(1000 km) on internal fuel.
equipped 5,053 lbs (2292 kg) with a maximum take-off weight of 7,716
lbs (3500 kg).
57 ft 8 1/2 in (17.59 m); length 44 ft 10 1/2 in (13.68 m); height 11
ft 1 3/4 in (3.40 m); wing area 452.1 sq ft
(42.0 sq m).
C.441, C.444, C.445, C.445M, C.445R (long range), C.445/3, C.446, C.447
(air ambulance), C.448, C.449.
flight (C.440) in 1934 by Test Pilot Raymond Delmotte.
France (Armée de l'Air, Aéronavale, Vichy Air Force, Free French),
Germany (Luftwaffe, Lufthansa), Yugoslavia (Aeroput), Bulgaria, Spain,