The design of a
twin-float reconnaissance seaplane, to supersede the E13A1 in service,
was initiated by Aichi in October 1940. This had the company
designation AM-22, and in early 1941 the Imperial Japanese navy drew up
a specification based upon this design. The first of three prototypes
was flown for the first time during May 1942, but the resolution of
stability problems, and of buffeting from the dive brakes occupied 15
months, The navy ordering the E16A1 into production in August 1943 as
the Navy Reconnaissance Seaplane Zuiun Model 11.
Of low-wing monoplane
configuration, the E16A1 had wings that incorporated trailing-edge
flaps, and which could be folded for shipboard stowage. Basic structure
was of metal, but the tailplane and wingtips were of wood, and all
control surfaces were fabric covered. The single-step floats each
included a controllable rudder to assist in on water operation, and the
forward mounting strut of the floats incorporated by
hydraulically-actuated dive brakes to allow the E16A1 to operate as a
dive-bomber. Accommodation for the crew of two was provided in tandem
cockpits, enclosed by a long transparent canopy. Powerplant of the
proto- type and of early production Zuiun (Auspicious Cloud) aircraft
consisted of a 1,300 hp (969 kW) Mitsubishi MK8A Kinsei 51 radial
engine driving a three-blade propeller. Later production aircraft used
the 1,300 hp (969 kW) MK8D Mitusbishi Kinsei 54 radial engine. A single
prototype of an improved E16A2 was being flight tested at the time of
the Japanese surrender, powered by a 1,560 hp (1163 kW) Mitsubishi MK8P
Kinsei 62 radial engine.
Production totalled 193
E16A1 production aircraft by Aichi Kokuki KK at Eitoku and 59 E16A1
production aircraft by Nipon Hikoki KK at Tomioka. Unfortunately for
the navy, by the time the E16A1 entered service the Allies had gained
air superiority and in consequence these aircraft, allocated the Allied
codename 'Paul', suffered very heavy losses during 1944. The majority
which survived were used for Kamikaze operations in the Okinawa
Seaplane Zuiun "Auspicious Cloud" Model 11 - Aichi E16A)
Type: Two Seat
Long Range Reconnaissance Floatplane
Kokuki Kabushiki Kaisha Design Team
Aichi Kokuki KK at Eitoku, 3 E16A1 prototypes (1942), 193 E16A1
production aircraft (Jan 1944-May 1945), 1 E16A2 prototype (1944) and
by Nipon Hikoki KK at Tomioka, 59 E16A1 production aircraft (Aug
(Prototypes and early production) One Mitsubishi MK8A Kinsei 51
14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, rated at 1,300 hp (969 kW) for
take-off, 1,200 hp (895 kW) at 9,842 ft (3000 m) and 1,100 hp (820 kW)
at 20,340 ft (6200 m). (Late production) One Mitsubishi MK8D Kinsei 54
14-cylinder air-cooled radial, rated at 1,300 hp (969 kW) for take-off,
1,200 hp (895 kW) at 9,842 ft (3000 m) and 1,100 hp (820 kW) at 20,340
ft (6200 m). (E16A2 prototype) One Mitsubishi MK8P Kinsei 62
14-cylinder air-cooled radial, rated at 1,560 hp (1163 kW) for
take-off, 1,340 hp (1000 kW) at 6,890 ft (2100 m) and 1,190 hp (887 kW)
at 19,028 ft (5800 m). All aircraft used a three-blade constant-speed
Maximum speed 273 mph (440 km/h) at 18,045 ft (5500 m); cruising speed
208 mph (335 km/h) at 16,405 ft (5000 m); service ceiling 32,810 ft
(10000 m); climb to 9,845 ft (3000 m) in 4 minutes 40 seconds.
range 1,504 miles (2420 km) on internal fuel.
6,493 lbs (2945 kg) with a maximum take-off weight of 10,038 lbs (4553
42 ft 0 1/4 in (12.81 m); length 35 ft 6 1/2 in (10.83 m); height 15 ft
8 1/2 in (4.79 m); wing area 301.40 sq ft (28.00 sq m); wing loading
28.5 lbs/sq ft (139.3 kg/sq m); power loading 6.7 lbs/hp (3.0 kg/hp).
wing mounted 20 mm Type 99 Model 2 cannon and one flexible rear-firing
13 mm (0.51 in) Type 2 machine-gun plus 551 lbs (250 kg) of bombs
carried externally on under fuselage mountings. (Prototype) Two wing
mounted 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 97 machine-guns and one flexible
rear-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 92 machine-gun plus 397 lbs (180 kg)
of bombs carried externally.
(three prototypes), E16A1 Model 11, E16A2 (single prototype).
flight (prototype) May 1942; production (E16A1 Model 11) August 1943;
flight testing (E16A2) August 1945.
(Imperial Japanese Navy)
- 301st, 634th and Yokosuka.