Lt. Eino Luukkanen, commander of 3./LLv 24, in
front of his Fokker D.XXI, January 1940.
The beginning of the career
Eino Antero Luukkanen was born in
Jaakkima, Finnish Carelia in the family of a railway employee on the 4th
of June 1909. The family moved later to Sortavala on the coast of the Lake
In Sortavala Eino Luukkanen was affected
by the Kasinhäntä Air Base with its buzzing seaplanes and pilots in their
blue uniforms, like many other boys of the town (Olli Puhakka, Illu
Juutilainen..) He stayed in school to receive the minimum education needed
for admission in the Cadet School. Having completed the compulsory
military training he started his military career there to become a Pilot
Officer in a Cadet School course during the years 1931 - 1933, after which
he received his commission. Luukkanen was posted as an ensign (= 2nd Lt.)
to the 1st Separate Maritime Squadron in Viipuri. He flew both as a pilot
and as an observer.
In 1935, having been promoted to
Lieutenant, he was married with miss Eeva Kaario. (Their first son died
young, to a great grief to the parents, and another was born in 1941.) In
the same year he applied an was was transferred to a fighter squadron,
LeLv 26 that had been equipped with Bristol Bulldog Mk.IV A fighters.
Luukkanen flew as much as possible to gain experience needed to train the
pilots that in future would be under his command. In 1939 he completed a
6-month course of studies in the Military Academy needed for his future
promotion to the rank of Captain. Immediately after the course he was
posted as the commander of the 3rd flight of Fighter Squadron 24 (LeLv24),
recently equipped with Fokker D.XXI fighters. Intensive training began
immediately turn the squadron into an operational unit. Luukkanen had 8
D.XXI fighters, 3 officer pilots, 5 NCO pilots and 30-strong technical
personnel under his command.
Eikka Luukkanen considered already
before the war that a fighter pilot was a professional athlete, who had to
be in top physical condition to be successful. Consequently, for training
in summer he would run, make long fast walks and ride bicycle and in
winter he would do cross-country skiing and participate in national
military skiing championship competitions. Luukkanen also encouraged his
pilots to follow his example. After each training session he would go to
sauna - he was a great sauna enthusiast and saw to it that a good sauna
was built at a river or a lake in every base where his unit was stationed
- if there was not one already. Luukkanen was convinced that during the
hard battles of the summer 1944 his pilots fought so well because after a
three or four-mission day they could go to the sauna and have a dip in the
lake for relaxation before sleep. Also he was interested in fishing and
hunting (actually shooting, to use the British term) when having a chance
for it. However, he was a smoker - in those innocent days cigarettes were
considered to be no more harmful than coffee.
Hitler had invaded Poland together with
his ally Stalin, the war had broken out. Soon the Soviet Union began to
make demands on Finland, and as a precaution the Finnish field army was
mobilized in October. Soviet aircraft began to fly in the Finnish airspace
- the tension was rising.
On 30 November, 1939, there was the
reveille at 06.00 (before sunrise) and there was the normal morning
assembly at 09.00. Lt. Col. Lorenz, commander of the Flight Regiment,
stood in front of the ranks. He pulled his pistol, fired a shot in the air
and announced that the war had started at 06.15 on the same morning. Then
he ordered the 3rd flight to an interception mission to Viipuri (100 km
Luukkanen and his men saw only fires
started by bombardment and some enemy bombers disappearing in the clouds
upon arrival on the scene. The Fokkers returned in bad weather.
The next day Luukkanen scored his first
victory, which he described as one of the most memorable events in his
The weather being unsuitable for flying,
the pilots set out to inspect the bombers they shot down. Examining the
SB-2 that Luukkanen downed, they found that of the 187 bullet holes
counted, the lethal hits were at the engine nacelles, so it would be
advisable to shoot at the bomber engines only. The local railway station
master told the airmen that the crew of the belly-landed Soviet bomber had
barricaded themselves in a hay barn nearby, using their sidearms and
refused to surrender. The local boys and old men - all the able-bodied men
being in the front - had to dispatch the enemy with hayforks, axes and
shotguns. After two of them had been killed the third shot himself in the
head as the barn was stormed by the civilians. Two of the enemies were
Lieutenants, one was a Major.
On the 18th of December the fuel tank
of Luukkanen's Fokker was punctured by friendly fire. As the fighter
engine run out of fuel, he had to land on a rough field, damaging his
plane considerably. On Christmas Eve he shared a R-5 with another pilot
over Summa and soon after that with his wingman got in a dogfight against
ten I-16s. Both Fokkers escaped thanks to their superior diving speed.
On the 24th of December the 3rd flight
was ordered to Värtsilä, NE of Lake Ladoga to provide air cover. The
airfield was covered with one meter of snow, and there were no amenities
except a telephone line. A barn was serving as hangar - only the nose
section of the Fokker could be pushed in for engine service. The barn was
serving only for blackout purposes, the inside was as cold as outside.
Luukkanen gives a special recognition to his technical personnel, who
maintained the Fokkers airworthy in primitive conditions, virtually under
open sky and at -40 (forty) degree centigrade weather. Once the mechanics
even replaced the Mercury engine of a fighter. The technical team had two
sets of tools, one set was warmed with a blow-lamp while the other set was
used until the tools began to freeze fast in the mechanics' hands.
Soon Luukkanen saw that his task was
hopeless. The enemy pilots flew as they wished and the air surveillance
network was full of holes. Still the Fokker pilots did their best during
the 6 weeks they stayed at Värtsilä. Luukkanen increased his score by
shooting down one SB-2 on the 6th of January 1940 - his last victory in
the Winter War.
Although Luukkanen was the commander of
the 3rd Flight, his rank was only Lieutenant. The reason was that in the
30's it was a rule that a Lieutenant could not be promoted until after
five years, even if the man had completed the Captain training. The rule
was laxed so that Luukkanen became Captain on the 15th of February 1940 -
five weeks ahead of time!
The 3rd Flight was ordered to return to
the main theater of war on the 6th February. Luukkanen was amazed to find
out how the Soviet Air Force had improved their act. The enemy had more
aircraft (3253 deployed against Finland), no unescorted bombers and the
fighters were equipped with extra fuel tanks for longer range. The Finnish
fighter pilots were fighting desperately against large formations of I-16
and I-153. The only escape from a dogfight was a steep dive, that neither
enemy fighter type was capable of following.
February 29, 1940, at Ruokolahti was the
black day of the Finnish Air Force. Fifteen FAF Gloster Gladiators and
Fokker D.XXI were bounced at takeoff by 36 I-16s and I-153s. In fifteen
minutes Luukkanen's unit lost 5 Gladiators and one Fokker, the enemy lost
one I-16 which was rammed by his second-in command, Lt. Huhanantti. Both
pilots were killed. Luukkanen did not participate because his fighter was
On the 4rd of March Luukkanen led his
flight in a ground strafing attack against Red Army column of some 500 men
plus horses pulling sleighs on the ice of the Gulf of Finland. The attack
was a success, and ground attacks against the enemy columns on the ice
near Viipuri were the main activity for the Squadron 24 up to the end of
the war (11.00 hours on the 13th of March1940). Luukkanen had scored 2 1/2
victories. He had also lost his home like 300.000 other people, who
voluntarily left their homes that were left on the Soviet side of the new
One year of peace and then another war
When the Winter War ended, the personnel
of the squadron were exhausted, but they soon recovered. Luukkanen had the
pleasant task of ferrying new Brewster 239 fighters (BW) from Trollhättan,
Sweden to Finland, completing four trips. Squadron 24 was re-equipped with
this modern fighter and training was started immediatel. Luukkanen,
serving as the commander of the 1st Flight, was also the second-in-command
for Major Magnusson, the Squadron leader. To Luukkanen this duty meant
administrative desk work, which he detested.
The war started again on June 25, 1941.
The 1st Flight was based at Vesivehmaa, north of Lahti. They failed to
score that day, due to communication problems.
His first battle in the new war took
place on the 8th of July 1941. Four BWs under Luukkanen's command had
taken off from the base of Rantasalmi at sunrise (03.00 hrs). They were
flying at 1500 m over Parikkala when they caught sight of six I-153s
flying at very low altitude over the front line. Luukkanen told everybody
to pick a target, then the Finnish fighters attacked.
Luukkanen approached a Chaika
which was flying at 100m altitude until he saw the head of the pilot -
then fired at the engine and the cockpit. The victim blew smoke from her
engine, shed some debris and banked into a dive, vanishing from the view
Luukkanen saw immediately three fighters
line astearn, the middle one being one of his BWs. He fired at a long
range at the last plane of the line, forcing her to abandon the BW. That
Chaika was flown by an expert, he knew how to make use of the
better turning radius of his fighter to avoid being shot down. The Finnish
pilot soon lost the I-153 from his sight and turned to find the others.
Then he saw a lone I-153 above. Using
the superior speed of the BW he approached the victim from below and
behind. Carefully he aimed, and then at a range of 50 m fired, raking the
belly of the Chaika from the nose to the tail with the bullets
from his heavy machine guns. The victim pulled up, stalled and dived in a
wild spin, striking the ground at 04.32 hrs at Oppola.
Luukkanen radioed an order to join above
the church of Parikkala. All four BW's were there at 4.43. They had scored
a total of five victories, but Luukkanen could prove only one.
During 1941 Luukkanen scored 5 1/2 victories. The enemy was passive and
preferred to avoid contact with the superior Brewsters. Luukkanen's flight
was transferred to Eastern Carelia, which provided fine fishing and
hunting opportunities during bad flying weather. On the 7th of October
1941 he was preparing for a reconnaissance mission with four planes as
four Pe-2s attacked the base. The bombs missed, but the fast bombers
escaped. The enemy was escorted by three LaGG-3s, which the four Brewsters
engaged. To the amazement of the Finnish pilots, the enemy dispersed.
Luukkanen chased one of them, which was keeping a straight course. He
caught the LaGG and fired from a range of 50 m. The enemy did not try any
evasive action before Luukkanen's bullets were hitting his plane. Then it
was too late, his engine stopped and he had to land on the wrong side of
the front line. The pilot was taken prisoner.
The LaGG-3 shot down by Luukkanen (on the right)
He had this man, whose name he withheld,
sent to his base in April 1942. This pilot was a Second Lieutenant with
about 100 flying hours, shot down on his second mission. This explained
his helplessness, all his attention was consumed to keep his fighter in
the air. The enemy pilot was treated friendly and given a good meal by
Luukkanen and his pilots. Before being taken back to the prisoner camp,
the Soviet pilot made a thank-you speech and wished success to Luukkanen
and his unit.
During 1942 Luukkanen scored 9 more
victories. There is a separate story on the battle of the 30th of October
1942. The Soviet Air Force was recovering and new Western aircraft types
appeared, providing tougher resistance to the Finnish pilots.
Luukkanen's Brewster, BW-390 taking off
Reconnaissance squadron commander
On 11 January, 1942, Luukkanen was
promoted to the rank of Major - and posted as the commander of
Reconnaissance Squadron 30. The joy of promotion was overshadowed by the
necessity to leave good comrades and a chance to fly a good fighter plane.
Hans Wind took over the 1st Flight.
Luukkanen took over 400 men and ten
aircraft. Half of them were Wasp-powered Fokker D.XXIs and half war-booty
I-153s. (The squadron was chronically under-equipped.) The task of the
unit was to reconnoitre the enemy shipping on the eastern part of the Gulf
of Finland and count the enemy aircraft on the islands of Seiskari and
Luukkanen, an ace with 17 victories, had
to resign in flying slow, unreliable planes. The weather was bad, there
was only little flying during the winter 1942-1943. The pilots would ski a
lot and go to sauna nearly every day.
Soon the Fokkers were taken away,
nothing was received in replacement. The MiG-3 war booty aircraft that
were to be supplied by Germany, were destroyed in the shipping harbour in
an air raid.
On the 8th of January 1943 when
returning from mission, the engine of a Chaika flown by Capt.
Paltila stopped cold in flight. The pilot had to land in the sea, covered
by thin ice. The ice broke under the plane and the pilot was killed in
hypothermia in a matter of minutes. It was a bitter thing to see for
Luukkanen. It was the third I-153 of the squadron lost with the pilot in
Luukkanen received a nice surprise on
the 27th of March 1943. He was posted as the commander of Fighter Squadron
34, whose commander, Maj. Ehnrooth, had been killed in a Pyry PY-25
aerobatics flying accident at Utti.
The Ace Squadron
Major Luukkanen took the command of
Fighter Squadron 34 on the 29th of March 1943 as the youngest of all FAF
Fighter Squadron commanders. The Squadron was created recently and
equipped with Messerschmitt Me 109 G2 fighters, flown by the top aces of
the Finnish Air Force, making it the elite unit.
As a leader of his pilots Luukkanen led
by example. By the end of the war he had logged 441 missions. In
comparison, of his top aces Lehtovaara, Tuominen and Puhakka each flew
about 400 missions between October 1939 and September 1944. One can see
that the squadron leader did not demand more of his men than he
accomplished himself. In practice, he flew as one of the pilots of the 3rd
flight, the commander of which was Capt. Puhakka, his friend and
second-in-command. One of his merits for earning the Mannerheim Cross was
the excellent fighting spirit that he had created in his squadron.
Yet in Squadron 34, as in all FAF
fighter squadrons, saluting and other military manners were not in use.
The relationship between the fighter pilots and their ground crews became
"informal" because the fighter plane belonged to both. The men, regardless
their rank, would greet each other friendly, then discuss the condition of
their aircraft. The pilot and the mechanics were responsible for the
plane, one in the air and the others on the ground. Olli Puhakka has
written an essay on this, explaining how a fighter pilot had to trust that
the technicians were keeping his plane in reliable condition. Without that
there would not have been any victorious air combats. Air battle requires
mental capital, the basics of which is the pilot's trust in his own
fighter, its airworthiness, the proper functioning of its weapons and
radio transceiver. One must keep in mind that FAF was chronically short of
airplanes, mostly no replacements were available. The pilots knew this,
and many a pilot sacrificed his own life trying to save his damaged plane.
Luukkanen flew the Messerschmitt Me-109
(MT) for the first time as soon as possible and fell in love with his new
tool. He made use of the opportunity to join the ferrying of the second
lot of 14 fighters from Erding, Germany, to Helsinki. It was a nice trip,
which he remembered fondly later.
Equipped with 28 fighters divided in
three flights the squadron was operational on the 19th of May 1943. During
the first 20 days the squadron scored 10 victories and lost two aircraft
with pilots - one in accident, the other one was rammed by an I-153 in
Luukkanen had a heavy responsibility: he
had to defend more than 400 km of coastline which included the main
harbours and the capital of the country. He divided the operation into
three bases: Malmi to defend Helsinki, Kymi to defend Kotka and Hamina,
and Suulajarvi to defend the western section of the main front line. He
flew actively and his score increased steadily, during 1943 he scored 12
The "Boss" in front of MT-203 at Utti in summer
Luukkanen expected that some day the
enemy would attack the Kymi base as the Me-109s would be taking off, but
his fear never materialized. Yet according to the information gleaned from
the shot-down and captured Soviet airmen, the enemy knew perfectly well
the location of the base and the defender's small strength.
The Squadron was involved in active
fighting. The personnel celebrated the 100th victory on the 11th of
September 1943. A particularly heavy and successful battle was fought on
the 17th of May 1944 at Kotka. At 10.30 hrs Luukkanen led 10 Me-109s
against 27 Pe-2s escorted by 15 Yak-9s and La-5s. The Finnish pilots
attacked through the defensive AAA fire from below, shooting down eight of
the bombers before the escort fighters were able to intervene. Three
Yak-9s were shot down in the ensuing dogfight at the cost of one Me-109,
whose pilot survived.
On 16 February 1944 the 2nd Flight was
detached and posted to the Squadron 30 (now renamed a Fighter Squadron) to
defend Helsinki only. In April 1944 the Me-109 G-2 model was replaced by
the more heavily armed G-6. Squadron 24 took the older Me-109s.
Hell breaks loose
On the 9th of June 1944 the Red Army
launched an offensive against the Finnish Army on the Carelian Isthmus.
The enemy employed daily at least 1000 aircraft, often flying in 100-plane
FAF had 38 serviceable Me-109 fighters
to resist the enemy in early June. A desperate battle began for the
fighter pilots and bomber crews. Yet the VVS never attempted to destroy
the FAF the way the USAF systematically attacked Luftwaffe. The FAF
fighter bases were attacked just a few times, and the bomber bases were
left totally alone by the Soviet Air Force. Even the bombers retreating
after a raid were not vigorously pursued by Soviet fighter pilots. Maybe
the FAF was too small a target for the mighty VVS to be bothered about?
There is enough light for 19 hour flying
days in mid-summer in the northern latitudes. The pilots flew a lot, and
between missions they took naps in tents that were put up next to the
parked fighters. The noise of engines did not disturb them. Only off-duty
pilots could sleep in their regular quarters. Luukkanen noticed that the
morale of the Finnish fighter pilots remained high. The men still cracked
jokes and laughed at them, and everyone was eager to fly as much as
possible. The strain made the pilots indifferent to their own person, they
ceased to consider their situation as abnormally dangerous.
On 12 June 1944 Squadron 34 had to leave
the Immola base for Lappeenranta. Luftwaffe Task Force Kuhlmey arrived to
the base to assist the Finnish Air Force with 30 Ju-87 dive bombers and 30
FW-190 fighter bombers.
Two days later (on 14 June) before noon
Luukkanen led 12 Me-109s to search and destroy two balloons the enemy used
to control artillery fire against the main defence line at Kuuterselkä.
The balloons were defended by 20 La-5s and P-39s. The Me-109s engaged the
enemy. Luukkanen found himself 30 m behind a P-39 and fired. The victim
dived, trailing smoke and fuel fume, then crashed on the ground. His
wingman shot down another, together they continued to get at the balloons.
Soon the fighting dispersed, as usual. Luukkanen surprised a La-5, whose
pilot tried to evade battle, but soon was hit by the Finnish fighter's
shells and crashed in the forest. Then Luukkanen saw one balloon against
the sky at 600 m. To avoid the AAA he first climbed south to be able to
attack from altitude and from the glare of the sun. This was a successful
operation, nearly undisturbed he shot the balloon in flames and retreated.
The second balloon was shot down, too, alongside with a third and five
enemy fighters at the cost of one Me-109 missing.
Luukkanen and his flight returned to
base and refueled. In the afternoon the squadron was sent to intercept
Stormoviks terrorizing Finnish infantry at Kuuterselkä. That day the
squadron fought four air battles, scoring 11 victories and four balloons.
One Me with pilot was missing. Then a five-hour sleep before a the next,
On June 18 Luukkanen was pleasantly
surprised when he heard from the radio news that he had been decorated
with the Mannerheim Cross. There was no time for celebration, however.
Next day (on 19 June) Luukkanen was shot
down (see separate story). The very next day he continued flying, for fear
of becoming fearful, if he took any leave. He managed to shoot down a
Yak-4 bomber. That restored his self-confidence.
On the 23rd of June 1944 the squadron
once again moved to another base, this time 40 km NW of Taipalsaari. It
was a field hastily built on sandy soil. There was a clump of trees in the
crossing of the runways, impairing visibility. The sand of the field was
blown in the air by slipstream so much that tropical filters had to be
fitted in the Messerschmitts. The narrow undercarriage wheels dug ruts in
the soft sand so fast that the field maintenance team could not keep up
with smoothing the runways. The pilots had to have the skill of juggler to
be able to take off and land on the bumpy field.
On the 13th of July Luukkanen led 12
Me-109s to escort 40 bombers raiding the Soviet bridgehead at Vuosalmi.
Due to the 90-minute endurance of the Me-109 without external tank the
mission was scheduled by the minute. On schedule the fighters took off and
grouped into three sections of four planes before climbing to 5500 m for
the join-up at Vuoksenranta. There they saw forty Finnish bombers arrive
in formation, just on schedule. The bombers comprised nine Junkers Ju-88s
in the front, then four Dornier Do-17Zs, the rest were Blenheim Mk. Is and
IVs - all the airworthy bombers of the FAF on that day.
The fighters were spread on each side of
the long formation, posing a tactical problem. Luukkanen thought that the
time was standing still, so slow was the approach flight to the target.
Fortunately no enemies were seen. Finally, about 20 minutes later, the
Vuoksi river appeared below the formation. The enemy opened heavy AAA
fire. The JUs dived for attack, and soon the escort pilots saw flashes of
exploding bombs and clouds of dust and smoke rising in the sky from the
bridgehead area. The other bombers, one by one, began to deliver their
loads from level flight as Luukkanen saw ten small specks approaching from
south. The enemy interceptors were going to attack.
Luukkanen gave a command over the radio:
"Eight up to the right" meaning that two sections engage the enemy while
the third stays with the bombers that had not yet dropped their loads.
After a few seconds the airspace over the target resembled a beehive. To
protect their brothers in arms in the bombers the Finnish fighter pilots
tied the attacking Yak-9s in a dogfight. Now the main objective was to
prevent the enemy from getting within firing range from the bombers, not
scoring victories. However, in the next minute two Soviet fighters dived
in flames, but Luukkanen had to watch powerlessly how one Blenheim left
the formation, trailing smoke. (However, no Blenheims are recorded to have
been lost that day. The damaged plane must have been able to land safely.)
As soon as the last three Blenheims had
turned North to join the returning convoy, the Me-109s retreated due to
threatening lack of fuel. The red low fuel alert light (indicating no more
than 20 minutes worth of fuel) was turned on when the fighters were about
15 minutes from the base. Luukkanen told his pilots to land at
Lappeenranta in case they had any doubts about their fuel reserve. Four
Me-109s had to divert.
At Taipalsaari the fighters were
reloaded and refueled. Meanwhile the pilots had a snack, interrupted as
all available fighters were scrambled for an interception mission.
The front line on the Carelian Isthmus
was stabilized finally on the 16th of July. Now the pilots had more time
to rest, and Luukkanen could spare some of his time for fishing.
Task Force Kuhlmey left on the 28th of
July. Luukkanen scored his last victory on the 5th of August as he and his
wingman each shot down one Yak-9 from the escorts of an IL-2 escadrille at
Narvi on the coast of the Gulf of Finland. He flew his last mission on the
26th of August, reconnoitering traffic and airfields on the western
Carelian Isthmus. Illu Juutilainen was his wingman as he had been in the
The armistice day for Finnish troops was
the 4th of September 1944, but for the Red Army the 5th.
Luukkanen's squadron did not participate
in the fighting against Germany in Lapland. To make his men useful the
Squadron Leader commanded them to logging work to make firewood, much
needed by the national economy.
Major Luukkanen and his pilots scored
345 victories in the period of 29 March 1943 - 4 September 1944. During
the same period his squadron lost 30 Messerschmitts, 18 of which in battle
and 12 pilots were killed plus one taken as prisoner of war.
End of the war
The quiet life of the grounded squadron
was briefly interrupted in late September by a rare visitor. A
high-ranking Soviet Air Force officer came to visit the pilots of Fighter
Squadron 34 at Utti air base. In their memories Finnish pilots vaguely
identify him as "general" - to protect a colleague. Fraternizing with a
recent enemy in September 1944 was a very serious thing to do for a Soviet
officer! Recently it has been made public that the officer was Lt. Col.
V.F. Golubev, the commander of 4.GIAP (Guards' Fighter Regiment). His La-5
pilots had had many hard battles against the pilots of Luukkanen's
squadron above the eastern Gulf of Finland in 1943-1944. According to the
stipulations of the cease-fire treaty Golubev's unit had been stationed
for a while at Malmi, the airport of Helsinki. He decided to make use of
the opportunity and see for himself the men he had fought against - with a
risk to himself.
The Finnish pilots were astonished to
learn that the Soviet officer already knew the names and nicknames of the
top aces (used as call codes in radio traffic) and other details of the
squadron. Golubev wanted to shake hands with the pilots, and as he stood
in front of Olli Puhakka, he asked with a smug smile (with the help of his
"- Do you remember, Captain, how we once
came to bomb Kotka when you and Major Luukkanen were just in sauna?" That
really had happened, Puhakka was dumbstruck. Could there have been a spy
in the base at Kymi?
End of career
Lt. Col. Luukkanen's military career was
ended in Court-Martial, 1951. He was sentenced to lose his rank and office
due to espionage. Luukkanen had in good faith handed over some aerial
photographs to a man who turned out to be the agent of a foreign
(NATO-affiliated) country. Later his right to pension was returned to him,
He wrote his memoirs which were
published in 1956 and were a minor success: three printings were taken.
His book was translated in English and published in Britain in 1961 and
reprinted in the US in 1992 (Alexandria, VA. Time) titled "Fighter over
Luukkanen died in 1961- his career and
health had been ruined, although he was never jailed. Luukkanen was
survived by his widow and his son Risto, who also entered military career.
In 1943 Luukkanen flew mostly the MT-201
(9 victories) and in 1944 MT-417 (8 victories plus two balloons) until on
the 19. June 1944 he was shot down and the fighter destroyed. Then his
"mount" was the MT-415 (yellow "5" in the vertical stabilizer) with which
he scored 16 victories.
Aircraft types he had flown at least once:
Caudron C.60, DH Moth, Letov Smolik, VL
Paarma (prototype), Aero Jupiter, IVL A.22 Hansa, VL Sääski, Martinsyde,
Junkers K.43, W.34, Gloster Gamecock, Bristol Bulldog, VL Tuisku,
Blackburn Ripon, Fokker C.V, C..X, D.XXI, VL Viima, F-W Stieglitz,
Fieseler Storch, VL Pyry, I-153, Morane-Saulnier 406, MSv, Hawker
Hurricane Mk.I, Fiat G.50, Me 109G2/G6, Brewster B-239, Curtiss A75,
Blenheim Mk.I, Mk.IV, Douglas DC-2.
Aircraft he shot down, by type:
Luukkanen's sorties log book:
Fokker D.XXI of 24 Squadron (3./LLv 24),
flown by Lt. Luukkanen in Winter War, December of 1940.